Pokok Bahasan Mata Kuliah Mikrobiologi Dasar Program Studi Biologi (S1) Fak. Biologi UNSOED

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Matriks Sitoplasma

The cytoplasmic matrix is the substance between the membrane and the nucleoid; it is featureless in electron micrographs but is often packed with ribosomes and inclusion bodies; although lacking a true cytoskeleton, the cytoplasmic matrix of bacteria does have a cytoskeleton-like system of proteins
Inclusion Bodies
1 Many inclusion bodies are granules of organic or inorganic material that are stockpiled by the cell for future use; some are not bounded by a membrane, but others are enclosed by a single-layered membrane
2 Gas vacuoles are a type of inclusion body found in cyanobacteria and some other aquatic forms; they provide buoyancy for these organisms and keep them at or near the surface of their aqueous habitat
3 Magnetosomes are inclusion bodies that contain iron in the form of magnetite; they are used by some bacteria to orient in the Earthís magnetic field
1 Ribosomes are complex structures consisting of protein and RNA
2 They are responsible for the synthesis of cellular proteins
3 Procaryotic ribosomes are similar in structure to, but smaller than, eucaryotic ribosomes
The Nucleoid
1 The nucleoid is an irregularly shaped region in which the chromosome of the procaryote is found
2 In most procaryotes, the nucleoid contains a single circular chromosome, though some have more than one chromosome or have one or more linear chromosomes
3 The nucleoid is not bounded by a membrane, but it is sometimes found to be associated with the plasma membrane or with mesosomes
4 The bacterial chromosome is an efficiently packed DNA molecule that is looped and coiled extensively
5 In addition to the chromosome, many bacteria contain plasmids; plasmids are usually small, closed circular DNA molecules
6 They can exist and replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome
They are not required for bacterial growth and reproduction, but they may carry genes that give the bacterium a selective advantage (e.g., drug resistance, enhanced metabolic activities, etc.)

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